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 The word comes from the Greek words kinesis (movement) and kinein (to move).

Kinesiology, also known as human kinetics, is the scientific study of human movement. Kinesiology addresses physiological, mechanical, and psychological mechanisms. Applications of kinesiology to human health include: biomechanics and orthopedics, rehabilitation, such as physical and occupational therapy, as well as sport and exercise.

Individuals who have earned degrees in kinesiology can work in research, the fitness industry, clinical settings, and in industrial environments.

Studies of human and animal motion include measures from motion tracking systems, electrophysiology of muscle and brain activity, various methods for monitoring physiological function, and other behavioral and cognitive research techniques .

Kinesiology as described above should not be confused with applied kinesiology, a controversial chiropractic diagnostic method, infact Applied kinesiology (AK) is an alternative medicine method used for diagnosis and determination of therapy.

Kinesiology is the study of human and animal movement, performance, and function by applying the sciences of biomechanics, anatomy, physiology, psychology, and neuroscience. Applications of kinesiology in human health include the rehabilitation professions, such as physical and occupational therapy, as well as applications in the sport and exercise industries. Kinesiology is a field of scientific study, and does not prepare individuals for clinical practice. A bachelor's degree in kinesiology can provide strong preparation for graduate study in biomedical research, as well as in professional programs, such as allied health and medicine.

Whereas the term "kinesiologist" is neither a licensed nor professional designation in the United States nor most countries (with the exception of Canada), individuals with training in this area can provide consulting services, conduct research and develop policies related to rehabilitation, human motor performance, ergonomics, and occupational health and safety. In North America, kinesiologists may study to earn a Bachelor of Science,

Master of Science, or Doctorate of Philosophy degree in Kinesiology or a Bachelor of Kinesiology degree, while in Australia or New Zealand, they are often conferred an Applied Science (Human Movement) degree (or higher).

Many doctoral level faculty in North American kinesiology programs received their doctoral training in related disciplines, such as neuroscience, mechanical engineering, psychology, and physiology.

The world's first kinesiology department was launched in 1967 at the University of Waterloo, Canada.

In most countries, kinesiology refers to an area of study and is not associated with a professional designation.

In Canada, kinesiology is a professional designation associated with the assessment of movement, performance, and function; and the rehabilitation, prevention, and management of disorders to maintain, rehabilitate, and enhance movement, performance, and function in the areas of sport, recreation, work, exercise, and general activities of daily living.

Kinesiology is applied in areas of health and fitness for all levels of athletes, but more often found with training of elite athletes.

All too often biomechanical analysis focuses on the kinetic energy or the working numbers in execution of technique.

More emphasis should be placed on muscle and joints as they are involved in the action and the role they play in execution of the technique is critical.




Kinesiotherapy is the application of scientifically based exercise principles adapted to enhance the strength, endurance, and mobility of individuals with functional limitations of those requiring extended physical conditioning.

The kinesiotherapist is academically and clinically prepared to provide rehabilitation exercise and education under the prescription of a licensed physician in an appropriate setting. Kinesiotherapists are qualified to implement exercise programs designed to reverse or minimize debilitation and enhance the functional capacity of medically stable patients in a wellness, sub-acute, or extended care setting. The role of the kinesiotherapist demands intelligence, judgment, honesty, interpersonal skills, and the capacity to react to emergencies in a calm and reasoned manner. An attitude of respect for self and others, adherence to the concepts of privilege and confidentiality in communicating with patients, and a commitment to the patient’s welfare are standard attributes. At a minimum, a kinesiotherapist is educated in areas of basic exercise science and clinical applications of rehabilitation exercise. Training is received in orthopedic, neurological, psychiatric, pediatric, cardiovascular- pulmonary, and geriatric practice settings.


 Applied kinesiology (AK)


 AK is a practice of alternative medicine and is different from "kinesiology," which is the scientific study of human movement. Several medical associations have advised that applied kinesiology should not be used to diagnose allergies.

George J. Goodheart, a chiropractor, originated applied kinesiology in 1964 and began teaching it to other chiropractors. An organization of Goodheart Study Group Leaders began meeting in 1973, selected the name "The International College of Applied Kinesiology" (ICAK) in 1974, adopted bylaws in 1975, elected officers in 1975, and "certified" its charter members, "diplomates" in 1976. ICAK now considers 1976 to be the date it was founded and 1973 to be the date that its first chairman took office.

While it is primarily used by chiropractors, it is now also used by a number of other practitioners.

In 2003 it was the 10th most frequently used chiropractic technique in the United States, with 37.6% of chiropractors employing this method and 12.9% of patients being treated with it,  and has also been used by naturopaths, medical doctors, dentists, nutritionists, physical therapists, massage therapists, and nurse practitioners.

Some basic AK based techniques have also been used/misused by nutritional supplement distributors, including multilevel distributors.

Applied kinesiology is presented as a system that evaluates structural, chemical, and mental aspects of health by using a method referred to as manual muscle testing alongside conventional diagnostic methods. The essential premise of applied kinesiology that is not shared by mainstream medical theory is that every organ dysfunction is accompanied by a weakness in a specific corresponding muscle, the viscerosomatic relationship.Treatment modalities relied upon by practitioners include joint manipulation and mobilization, myofascial, cranial and meridian therapies, clinical nutrition, and dietary counseling.

A manual muscle test in AK is conducted by having the patient resist using the target muscle or muscle group while the practitioner applies a force. A smooth response is sometimes referred to as a "strong muscle" and a response that was not appropriate is sometimes called a "weak response". This is not a raw test of strength, but rather a subjective evaluation of tension in the muscle and smoothness of response, taken to be indicative of a difference in spindle cell response during contraction. These differences in muscle response can be indicative of various stresses and imbalances in the body. A weak muscle test is equated to dysfunction and chemical or structural imbalance or mental stress, indicative of suboptimal functioning. It may be suboptimal functioning of the tested target muscle, or a normally optimally functioning muscle can be used as an indicator muscle for other physiological testing. A commonly known and very basic test is the arm-pull-down test, or "Delta test," where the patient resists as the practitioner exerts a downward force on an extended arm. Proper positioning is paramount to ensure that the muscle in question is isolated or positioned as the prime mover, minimizing interference from adjacent muscle groups.

"Nutrient testing" is used to examine the response of various of a patient's muscles to assorted chemicals. Gustatory and olfactory stimulation are said to alter the outcome of a manual muscle test, with previously weak muscles being strengthened by application of the correct nutritional supplement, and previously strong muscles being weakened by exposure to harmful or imbalancing substances or allergens. Though its use is deprecated by the ICAK, stimulation to test muscle response to a certain chemical is also done by contact or proximity (for instance, testing while the patient holds a bottle of pills).

"Therapy localization" is another diagnostic technique using manual muscle testing which is unique to applied kinesiology. The patient places a hand which is not being tested on the skin over an area suspected to be in need of therapeutic attention. This fingertip contact may lead to a change in muscle response from strong to weak or vice versa when therapeutic intervention is indicated. If the area touched is not associated with a need for such intervention, the muscle response is unaffected.

As with many concepts considered pseudoscientific, there is debate around the nature and quality of evidence supporting applied kinesiology, with proponents claiming support from some published papers and critics noting other research which fails to show efficacy. One review of the literature identified methodological problems with previous AK studies

Studies supporting AK have been published in respect of food allergies and antibodies for those foods, and a blinded study where the response of a calf muscle to an inhibitory reflex technique used in AK was studied using graphical recordings of electromyography and mechanical parameters, finding that with good coordination between the examiner and subject, muscle inhibition was easily recorded.

Other studies have failed to show clinical efficacy. For example, in some studies muscle testing has not been shown to distinguish a test substance from a placebo under double-blind conditions, and the use of applied kinesiology to evaluate nutrient status was not shown to be more effective than random guessing. Some scientific studies have shown that applied kinesiology tests were not reproducible.

A review of several scientific studies of AK-specific procedures and diagnostic tests concluded that "When AK is disentangled from standard orthopedic muscle testing, the few studies evaluating unique AK procedures either refute or cannot support the validity of AK procedures as diagnostic tests. The evidence to date does not support the use of manual muscle testing for the diagnosis of organic disease or pre/subclinical conditions." Another concluded that "There is little or no scientific rationale for these methods. Results are not reproducible when subject to rigorous testing and do not correlate with clinical evidence of allergy." A double-blind study was conducted by the ALTA Foundation for Sports Medicine Research in Santa Monica, California and published in the June 1988 Journal of the American Dietetic Association. The study used 3 experienced AK practitioners and concluded that, "The results of this study indicated that the use of Applied Kinesiology to evaluate nutrient status is no more useful than random guessing."

Despite more than four decades of review, RCT (randomized, controlled trials) and other evaluative methods, even invested researchers delivered the following opinion;

One shortcoming is the lack of RCTs to substantiate (or refute) the clinical utility (efficacy, effectiveness) of chiropractic interventions based on MMT findings. Also, because the etiology of a muscle weakness may be multifactorial, any RCT that employs only one mode of therapy to only one area of the body may produce outcomes that are poor due to these limitations.

Some of the studies, research and reviews of applied kinesiology mentioned above are listed at the National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health.


How Kinesiology Works

Kinesiologists are united by a fundamental belief and experience that each of us has an innate understanding of what is needed to become truly healthy. This information is accessed through muscle testing. Muscle testing allows the practitioner to access information about the client that neither the practitioner nor the client may know at a conscious level.

Muscle testing is a painless procedure involving the practitioner applying gentle pressure to specific parts of the body (often arms and legs) to test the response of an underlying muscle. The muscle will either easily be able to resist the pressure from the practitioner or will give way, at least slightly. The kinesiologist uses the response to access information about what is happening and what is needed. This can be determined because of the inter-relationship between muscles, meridians and body systems. The information will apply not only to the muscle being tested but can also give valuable information about other imbalances within the body and the necessary procedures to correct them. For example, if a muscle tests spongy or unlocks in the presence of a food it may mean that the person is intolerant to that food.

How Kinesiology Can Help

People consult a kinesiologist for many different reasons.

  • Help with physical problems including eczema, asthma, migraine, arthritis, allergies, hay fever, M.E., menstrual problems, menopausal problems and IBS.
  • Emotional stress and help with depression, anxiety, panic attacks, lack of self confidence, etc.
  • Dyslexia, ADHD and other related problems.
  • Structural problems, realignment, improvement in muscle performance.
  • Kinesiology can be used to accurately ascertain which nutritional supplements are needed by an individual.
  • Sports people may seek the help of a kinesiologist to improve their performance.
  • Kinesiology can be useful to release emotional and physical trauma from the body after an emotional shock or accident.

Kinesiology – A New Healing Science

Initial research began in the U.S. in the 1930′s and was expanded in the 1960′s by chiropractors embracing techniques derived from Chinese medicine using acupressure and meridian systems.  Kinesiology combines this knowledge with modern muscle monitoring techniques to balance the person, although through its dual East-West roots, Kinesiology actually extends back thousand of years.

Kinesiology is able to facilitate the natural healing process.

  While manual muscle monitoring appears simple, it is a precise feedback mechanism. The accuracy is based on the neurological and physiological arrangement of the human system that is, in any given moment, processing many pieces of information about its position and state. Although only a fraction of this information comes to conscious awareness, the subconscious mind is always aware of everything going on within and around the person.


This same subconscious mind also stores all our life memories in exquisite detail together with all the emotional feelings, even though we may not consciously be able to recall them.

A Kinesiology treatment is known as ‘a Balance’ during which the client remains fully clothed. After comprehensive history taking the practitioner uses muscle monitoring to address energy imbalances.

Each Kinesiology balance is unique because it is determined by the responses gained from muscle monitoring.

An unlocking muscle test indicates a disturbed energy flow – be it structural, chemical, nutritional, mental, emotional and spiritual. This stress may manifest in the person as some form of disease, an accident, poor nutritional or postural habits, an unresolved argument, personal trauma or crisis, even as a misunderstanding. Stresses can also carry over from any time in the client’s life.

For the client, most issues have been long forgotten because they tend to subside into the subconscious and are only brought back into the conscious mind through the stimulus of a trigger event that in some way matches that past experience.

When the brain is triggered by a similar stress, the body reacts to this stress from the previous event

This is how individuals become locked into inappropriate behavioural patterns and often find themselves behaving like irrational children, despite the fact that as adults they really want to change their reaction to life’s challenges.

During a Kinesiology balance, people are surprised to find themselves recalling long forgotten incidents. The person however, never forgets because our survival-oriented structure means we hold all memories, particularly memories of negative experiences, somewhere in our system. The subconscious mind projects these experiences into the body, mind and soul, an outcome that gives rise to ‘feelings’.

Consider how mental tension is felt as a tight jaw, tensed shoulders and a churning stomach. This is a purely mental event projected by the mind into the body as a physical sensation, such as pain or discomfort.

Kinesiology encompasses a vast array of balancing modalities with most of these emphasizing the power of emotions, particularly unresolved negative emotions.

Muscle monitoring can pinpoint these emotional triggers, and by bringing them back ‘on-line’, the person is given the chance to re-evaluate the events and the circumstances surrounding it.

In the context of their current life experience, they are then in a position to change their responses and to choose new and more relevant responses.
Choice is the real key to resolving many stresses. Where there is choice, there is balance and where there is balance, there is also optimal health.
Each Kinesiology balance is different because it honours the person’s own healing potential and the sequence it follows to bring about the remarkable process that is healing.


meridians or pathways

There are 14 'main' meridians or pathways joining the acupuncture points.12 meridians are bilateral (both on the right and left). And 2 are midline on the body (front and back). There have been new meridians discovered which are called "Extra Meridians". I am not covering them at this time.

Each meridian has a definite pathway on the body, and is divided into internal and external pathways.

The internal pathway begins at an organ. It traverses inside the body and is linked to the external pathway at the 'starting' acupuncture point.

The external pathway ends at the 'terminal' point and is then linked to another internal pathway leading back to the organ of origin. The whole meridian or pathway is a closed circuit and has a definite direction of flow. Since the whole meridian is a closed circuit, a point on the hand can cure a headache. Each meridian has a starting point and a terminal point. The terminal point of each meridian is connected to the starting point of another meridian through 'connecting meridians'. No meridian exists as a separate circuit. They are all interconnected in the following sequence:

lung, large intestine, stomach, spleen, heart, small intestine, urinary bladder, kidney, pericardium, triple heater, gall bladder, and liver.


Lung Channel of Hand-Taiyin

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Lung Meridian
There are 11 acupuncture points on each side of the body belonging to this meridian. These points are mainly used for treatment of chronic cough, dyspnea, chest discomfort, sorethroat, fever, influenza, and for alleviating shoulder and arm pain.

Horary Clock
3am - 5am Lungs (yin)


Large Intestine Channel of Hand-Yangming

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 Large Intestine Meridian
There are 20 bilateral points on this meridian. These points are mainly used for treatment of abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, fever and also symptoms arising from the head and neck region such as toothache, eptistaxis, sorethroat, or rhinitis.

Horary Clock
5am - 7am Colon (yang)


Stomach Channel of Foot-Yangming

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Stomach Meridian
There are 45 bilateral point on this meridian. These points can be used for stomach ache, vomiting, sorethroat, knee pain, ascites, epistaxis, abdominal extension, hyperpyrexia, and facial palsy.

Horary Clock
9am - 11am Stomach (yang)


 Spleen Channel of Foot-Taiyin

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Spleen Meridian
This meridian has 21 bilateral points. Spleen points can be used for, indigestion, malabsorption, anemia, general malaise, vomiting, ulcer pain, abdominal distension, and pain in the lower extremities.

Horary Clock
11am - 1pm Spleen (yin)


Heart Channel of the Hand-Shaoyin

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Heart Meridian
The heart meridian has 9 bilateral points. The points on the heart meridian can be used for treatment of, chest pain, palpitation, jaundice, and arm pain.

Horary Clock
11am - 1pm Heart (yin)


Small Intestine Channel of the Hand-Taiyang

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Small Intestine Meridian
This meridian has 19 bilateral points. These points can be used for treatment of, neck and shoulder pain, lower abdominal pain, sore throat, and symptoms of the ear such as tinnitus and hearing loss.

Horary Clock
1pm - 3pm Small Intestine (yang)


Urinary Bladder Channel of Foot-Taiyang

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Urinary Bladder Meridian
There are 67 bilateral points on this meridian. Some of the points on this meridian can treat, dysuria, incontinence of urine, soreness of the eyes, headache, backache, runny nose, loin and leg pain, and general malaise.

Horary Clock
3pm - 5pm Urinary Bladder (yang)


Kidney Channel of Foot-Shaoyin

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Kidney Meridian
There are 27 bilateral points on this meridian. These point can be used to treat, kidney problems, constipation, loin pain, and diarrhea.

Horary Clock
5pm - 7pm Kidneys (yin)


Pericardium Channel of Hand-Jueyin

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Pericardium Meridian
There are 9 points on this meridian. These points can be used to treat, chest pain, palpitation, arm pain and drowsiness.

Horary Clock
7pm - 9pm Pericardium (yin)


Triple Heater Channel of Hand-Shaoyang

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Triple Heater Meridian
This meridian has 23 bilateral points. Points on this meridian can be used to treat, hearing loss, mastoiditis, headache, sore throat, abdominal distension, dysuria, ascites, and incontinence of urine.

Horary Clock
9pm - 11pm Triple Heater (yang)


Gall Bladder Channel of the Foot-Shaoyang

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Gall Bladder Meridian
There are 44 bilateral points on this meridian. These points can be used to treat, symptoms of the head and chest, and for paralysis of the lower extremities.

Horary Clock
11am - 1pm Gall Bladder (yang)


Liver Channel of Foot-Jueyin

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Liver Meridian
There are 14 bilateral points on this meridian. The points on the liver meridian cna be used to treat, abdominal pain, loin pain, uterine bleeding, hernia, and retention of urine.

Horary Clock
1am - 3am Liver (yin)


Du Channel

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Governing Meridian
There are 28 points running midline down the back on this meridian. The point on this meridian can be used to treat symptoms arising from the neck and posterior trunk area, cervical syndrome, and mental disorders.


Ren Channel  

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Conception Meridian
There are 24 points running midline down the front of the body. Acupuncture points on this meridian are mainy used for treatment problems of the genital-urinary system such dysuria and enuresis, dysmnorrhea, and genital pain such as hernia.

The Governing Meridian and the Conception Meridian are connected through the tongue which acts as a switch. The circuit is connected when the tip of the tongue touches the point where the gums meet the front two teeth. Siu Lim Tao, the first Wing Chun form is performed using this principle.